The development of wireless technologies has led to the demand for miniaturized devices that can operate in multiple frequency ranges with high gain. Metamaterials, which are artificial materials with a symmetrical homogeneous structure, have emerged as a solution to meet these requirements. Metamaterials exhibit unique properties such as negative permeability and permittivity, allowing them to operate across different frequencies.
In this study, a unique metamaterial structure is presented, capable of resonating in the S, X, and Ku bands. The design is initiated on a Rogers substrate with specific dimensions calculated at 3.424 GHz. The resonating patch consists of four quartiles connected by a central metallic strip, creating a mirror-symmetric structure. Two H-shaped modifiers connect two quartiles of each vertical half, forming resonance cavities.
Equivalent circuit modeling and Advanced Design Software (ADS) verification were used to examine the resonance phenomena. The metamaterial properties of the proposed structure, including negative permittivity, permeability, and refractive index, were extracted. A prototype was fabricated and measured, showing similarity to the simulated results.
The proposed metamaterial structure also exhibits a high effective medium ratio (EMR) of 10.95, indicating its compactness. This compact metamaterial can play a crucial role in improving the performance of miniaturized devices for multi-band wireless communication systems.
Metamaterials have applications in various fields, including sensing, sound engineering, anomalous reflection, sub-wavelength focusing, and metallic cloaking. They have been used in terahertz frequency systems for skin cancer detection, wide-band dual frequency sharing, holography, polarization splitting, and radar RCS reduction.
The performance of microwave systems heavily relies on the performance of the antennas. Several studies have focused on using metamaterials to improve antenna gain, bandwidth, radiation efficiency, and size. Metamaterial resonators, when integrated into antenna designs, have shown impedance-matching phenomena, improved gain and bandwidth, circular polarization, and increased efficiency.
In conclusion, the unique metamaterial structure presented in this study offers the potential to enhance the performance of miniaturized devices for multi-band wireless communication systems. Its properties, including negative permittivity, permeability, and refractive index, make it a valuable component in improving antenna performance and facilitating various microwave applications.